Computer software also called a program or simply software is any set of instructions that directs a computer to perform specific tasks or operations. Computer software consists of computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data (such as online documentation or digital media). Computer software is non-tangible, contrasted with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used without the other.
At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the user. The processor carries out the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to “jump” to a different instruction, or interrupted.
Software written in a machine language is known as “machine code”. However, in practice, software is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or an interpreter or a combination of the two. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, essentially, a vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language is translated into machine language using an assembler.
Types of Software
Depending on what you would want to do with your computer, software can be divided into the following:
Any software that uses the computer system to perform special functions or provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There are many different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be performed with a modern computer is so large. Some examples are Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Photoshop.
Any software that directly operates the computer hardware, to provide basic functionality needed by users and other software, and to provide a platform for running application software.
System software includes:
Operating systems, which are essential collections of software that manage resources and provides common services for other software that runs “on top” of them. Supervisory programs, boot loaders, shells and window systems are core parts of operating systems. In practice, an operating system comes bundled with additional software (including application software) so that a user can potentially do some work with a computer that only has an operating system. Some examples are Windows 8, Windows 9, Windows 10, OS X.
Device drivers, which operate or control a particular type of device that is attached to a computer. Each device needs at least one corresponding device driver; because a computer typically has at minimum at least one input device and at least one output device, a computer typically needs more than one device driver. Some examples are the drivers for your printer, modem, router and security cameras.
Utilities, which are computer programs designed to assist users in the maintenance and care of their computers.
Malicious software or malware, which is software that is developed to harm and disrupt computers. As such, malware is undesirable. Malware is closely associated with computer-related crimes, though some malicious programs may have been designed as practical jokes.
Some software are more complicated than others and you would have to learn how to use them. For instance, before we can use Microsoft Word or Excel or Adobe Photoshop, you may need to learn about their basics and how to use them properly before you can make full use of them.
There are many available courses both offline and online which offers the training you require to use many of these software. The ICDL Certification Courses like the ICDL Certification Course Adobe Photoshop CS 6 Classes by Skills Academy Singapore is one of them.